A birch rod often shortened to "birch" is a bundle of leafless twigs bound together to form an implement for administering corporal punishment. Contrary to what the name suggests, a birch rod is not a single rod and is not necessarily made from birch twigs, but can also be made from various other strong and smooth branches of trees or shrubs, such as willow. Another factor in the severity of a birch rod is its size - i. In some penal institutions, several versions were in use, which were often given names. In the s, the Royal Navy abandoned the use of the cat o' nine tails on boy seamen. The cat had acquired a nasty reputation because of its use in prisons, and was replaced by the birch, with which the wealthy classes were more familiar, having been chastised with it during their schooling.
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The Middle Ages or mediaeval period is generally regarded as beginning the time from the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century. The end of the middle ages is much harder to define, with a variety of dates of significant events such as the Renaissance , the Protestant Reformation, the Battle of Bosworth Field or the Battle of Lepanto in being used in different places and fields of art and study. Often in British thinking this broader period is divided by the coming of William the Conquerer in , when the Anglo-Saxon age ends. Often the term Middle Ages is used to refer to this period of to
I am engaged to a doctor who will complete his residency in 2 years. I need suggestions to handld the neurotic behavior, ocd, and opinions. She asked me not to contact her so that she could have the space she needed at this time. There is a lot about Mormonism I am still struggling to understand, but I am reading faith-based memoirs and studying up on Mormonism as well as other religions but the relevance here is on Mormonism. Having said this, there are several aspects of this particular religion that you need to be aware of as these will greatly affect how she will approach you and the relationship as a whole. Or maybe he's like me and would rather just collapse into bed with you when he gets home. While Scientology is way worse hopefully the parallels will get her thinking.